Hydrogen as a power supply for a fuel cell in combination with an electric motor or in a combustion engine can serve as fuel for all kinds of transport. Long-distance and/or heavy-duty transport is particularly suitable for a hydrogen propulsion, since battery-electric solutions cannot provide the desired range or workload. Hydrogen is an ideal solution for trucks, trains, buses, (inland shipping) ships, logistics devices and some passenger car fleets.
For most transport applications, the focus is on fuel cells and hydrogen in gaseous form with storage below 350 or 700 bar. The fuel cell can provide direct drive for an electric motor or it can act as a range extender by continuously charging a (relatively small) battery. This solution is silent and without any emissions, except for water.
For very heavy applications, such as the maritime sector or aviation, combustion engines and hydrogen in liquid or derived (also liquid) form, such as methanol or ammonia, are more likely to be considered. As a step towards 100% hydrogen-based combustion engines, "dual fuel" engines that use a combination of diesel and hydrogen (gas) are being developed.